Inhalation exposure and risk assessment associated with the release of VOC, SVOC and particulates from scented candles
ToxMinds assessed consumer exposures and risks associated with the release of volatile organic compounds, including benzene, formaldehyde and naphthalene from scented candles. The work was the basis for two scientific publications
Scented candles are under scrutiny to pose human health effects as a result of releasing volatile or semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC; SVOC) as well as particulates indoors during use. Thanks to our previous experience in the wider context of air freshener risk assessment, we were tasked by a European and a US-based industry association to assess consumer risks associated with the release of the VOC, SVOC and particulates indoors by scented candles. Our assessment included carcinogenic or genotoxic chemicals, such as benzene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde also in addition to perfume raw materials, such as limonene, eugenol and linalool. We developed a suitable testing protocol to allow measuring candle emissions as well as identifying suitable models to allow estimating consumers’ inhalation exposure on the basis of candle emission data. The work was the basis for two scientific publications, one covering the protocol validation work for candle emission testing in 2013 and the other covering the consumer risk assessment of the candle emissions in 2014.